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Born on December 9, 1966 at Albany, New York, United States, Kirsten Gillibrand, née Kirsten Elizabeth Rutnik, was an American politician appointed from New York as a Democrat to the United States Senate in 2009 who was elected to that body in 2010. Formerly serving in the United States House of Representatives (2007–09).
In 1988 Rutnik obtained a Bachelor of Arts from Dartmouth College. She studied law at the University of California, Los Angeles (Juris PhD, 1991). She served before joining the firm in New York City at the U.S. Court of Appeal. She defended Philip Morris particularly in private practise against claims that she misled about the health consequences of smoking. When future Governor Andrew Cuomo served in the administration of Pres. Bill Clinton as Secretary of House and urban development, he appointed Rutnik as his special counsel. She also worked on the victorious Senate campaign of Hillary Clinton in 2000. The following year, Rutnik came back to private practise and married Jonathan Gillibrand.
Gillibrand has earned in the Senate a reputation as a Liberal Democrat, who has generally chosen party leadership, a significant difference from his position in the House when he has been called a “Blue Dog” or a Conservative Democrat. This move was partly explained as reflecting its Congressional district’s largely conservative view versus the comparatively liberal views of the State as a whole. In the military, she pushed to reform the treatment of sexual assault cases and to abolish the policy that openly prevented LGBT men and women from serving in the military: “Don’t ask, don’t tell.” She also insisted on government transparency, publication of claims for allocations, tax records, meeting notes and other materials. Further, it introduced laws extending the funding for the treatment of healthcare and other requirements of the victims of the events of 11 September 2001.
In 2012, Gillibrand won the reelection, and her subsequent term was significant for her efforts to fight sexual harassment. She sponsored legislation to improve the way the U.S. military prosecutes incidents of sexual abuse, and in 2017 she tabled a bill to review how the legislative Office of Compliance handled such complaints in the context of a developing sexual misconduct scandal in Congress. Gillibrand was easily re-elected in 2018 and indicated that it wanted to be elected as a Democratic Presidential candidate by 2020 the next year. However, she struggled to win support and retired from the race in August 2019.
A political book, Off the Sidelines: Raise your Voice, Change the World (authored by Elizabeth Weil), was published in 2014 by Gillibrand.
Don’t ask, Don’t tell (DADT), former official US policy (1993–2011) on the service of military gays. The term was coined when Bill Clinton signed the law in 1993 (which comprises statutes, regulations and political memoranda) that “do not ask, do not tell, do not pursue and don’t harass” military members. In theory, when it came into force on 1 October 1993, the policy abolished the ban on homosexual service established during WWII, but in fact it continued to be prohibited by statute. The House and the Senate decided to abolish the programme in December 2010, and President Barack Obama signed the law on 22 December. The policy finalised formally on 20 September 2011.
Between his November 1992 election as President and his inauguration in January 1993, Clinton announced that he intended to immediately put an end to the long-standing U.S. military ban on homosexuals in ranks. While the move has been popular with many Americans, especially homosexual activists who supported Clinton’s campaign and promised Clinton to do something during the election campaign, few observers think that he will move so swiftly on a potentially contentious topic. The idea was strongly opposed by Sen. Sam Nunn, a Georgian Democrat, chief of the Senate Armed Services Committee. In fact, Clinton’s proclamation contradicted the president with top military officials and a number of significant civilians with armed forces supervision.
Following a heated argument, Clinton managed to obtain approval for a compromise proposal that allowed homosexual servants and female servants to remain in the military unless they openly declared their sexual orientation, which soon became known as ‘Don’t Ask, Don’t tell’ policy. But military officials opposed this strategy overwhelmingly, fearing that the sheer presence of gays inside the army would undermine moral standards. The policy was further subverted by discriminatory charges which defended the right of gays to serve without any fear of prejudice in the military.
Under law, gay soldiers serving in the military were not allowed to communicate or engage in sexual behaviour about their sexual orientation, and commanders were not allowed to query members of the service about their sexual orientation. Although Clinton introduced “Don’t ask, don’t talk” as a liberalisation of existing policies, saying that it was a way for the gay to serve in the military, when they had been formerly excluded from it, a large number of gay-rights activists criticised a policy that had forced military personnel into secrecy. For a number of reasons, the policy had no effect on commanders’ conduct; homosexual and lesbian soldiers were discharged from duty. During the Iraq war, which began in 2003, the policy was further investigated by the discharges of numerous gay Arabic linguists from the military.
More than 12,000 officers had been expelled from the military for refusing to cover-up their homosexuality on the 15th anniversary of the statute in 2008. When Barack Obama campaigned in 2008, he claimed that “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” would be overturned and Gays and Lesbians may openly serve in the military. Robert Gibbs, his press secretary, unmistakably reinforced this position during Obama’s transition. While homosexual advocates thought that Obama would immediately overturn “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell,” releases continued in Obama’s first year of his tenure. In February 2010, the Pentagon revealed its plan to reassess the policy, and a study to establish how an abolition might influence military action was likely to be launched by late 2010. New procedures were added in the next month, so as to instantly reduce the implementation of “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell,” making it more difficult for gay militants openly to be removed. The measures included allowing only high-ranking police to supervise enforcement actions and requiring stricter standards of evidence. For example, all third party testimonials had to be made on oath under the new requirements.
In May 2010, the U.S. House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate panel voted in favour of allowing the abolition of “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell,” while the President, Defense Secretary and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff concluded their Study and attestation that lifting the ban did not adversely affect the army readiness. During the Pentagon assessment, the policy was subject to a law lawsuit claiming that it infringed the rights of service members to amend the First and Fifth amendments. In September, a federal magistrate agreed with the plaintiffs that it was unconstitutional, although the decision immediately did not invalidate the law. Later that month’s efforts to eliminate ‘Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell’ halted in the Senate as Republicans filibustered the annual National Defense Authorization Act, comprising numerous contentious proposals, including one that would enable the abolition the legislation.
In October “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” stopped, following an injunction issued by a federal judge in California prohibiting the military from carrying out the policy. Department of Justice challenged the decision later that month. In the midst of uncertainty regarding the future of the policy, Defense Secretary Robert M. Gates issued stricter enforcement guidelines requiring that the Secretary for Air Force, the Army or the Navy consult both the Defense Under-Secretary and the Pentagon’s Top Legal Officer before removing a gay member.
The Pentagon released its study report on “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” on November 30th, 2010, which concluded that abolishing policy represented no danger to military efficiency. Approximately 70% of the members surveyed thought that removing the policy would have a mixed, positive or no effect. But approximately 40%-60% of Marine Corps members indicated negative opinions or worries about reversing “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell.” The independent US Sen. Joe Lieberman and Maine Republican Sen. Susan Collins launched a self-alone bill in the U.S. Senate, which would repeal “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell.” A similar bill, passed 250–174 on 15 December, was filed at the House of Representatives. Three days after the measure, a Republican attempt to overcome the filibuster by a 63–33 vote was passed and the law for abrogation was enacted later that day. President Obama hailed that vote and released a statement that stated, “The time has come to realise that sacrifice, courage and integrity are no more determined by sexual orientation than by race or gender, religion or faith.” On 22 December, Obama signed the bill.
The United States Senate, one of the two chambers of the United States legislature, founded by the Constitution in 1789. The terms of around one-third of the membership of the Senate expire every two years, giving the House its nickname “house that never dies.”
The Founding Fathers conceived the role of the Senate as a check on the popularly elected House. Therefore, every state is equally represented irrespective of size or population. Furthermore, through the state legislatures the election to the Senate was indirect until the Seventeenth Amendment of the Constitution (1913). They are now directly elected by each State’s voters.To be valid in an act of Congress, both houses must approve the same document.
The Senate is entitled to important powers pursuant to the provisions of ‘advice and consent’ (Article II, paragraph 2), of the Constitution: ratification requires a two-thirds majority of all senators present and a simple majority to approve key public appointments, such as those of cabinet members, ambassadors and Supreme Court judges. The Senate also adjudicates the prosecution processes in the House of Representatives, requiring two-thirds of a majority for conviction.
As in the House of Representatives, the method and organisation are dominated by political parties and the committee system. Each party elects a leader to organise Senate activity, usually a senator with great prominence in his own right. The head of the biggest party is called the leader of the majority, while the leader of the opposition is called the leader of the minority. The leaders of the Senate also have a major role in the appointment of their party members for the Senate committees, which evaluate and process legislation and have general authority over government agencies and departments. The US Vice-President is the president of the Senate, but can only vote where a tie exists. In the absence of the vice president, the president pro tempore – often the longest serving party member — is the chairman of the Senate.
Seventeen standing committees comprise mostly key policy areas with employees, budgets and several subcommittees. Thousands of proposals are referred to committees during each session of Congress, yet only a minority of the proposals are taken by the committees. The final text for a law is discussed during “mark-up” sessions, which are open or closed. The committees conduct hearings and call for witnesses to give evidence of the law before them. Select and special committees are also established to conduct research and report to the Senate, covering ageing, ethics, Indian affairs and intelligence.
The smaller membership of the Senate allows a broader debate than in the House of Representatives. Three-fifths of Membership (60 Senators) must vote for cloture to check a filibuster—the unstoppable debate that obstructs legislative action. (The Senate invoking cloture rule was redefined in 2013 to allow cloture by majority voting for debate on all presidential nominees, save those to the Supreme Court, and the Supreme Court appointments again reinterpreted in 2017.) If the measure under discussion alters the rules of the Senate, cloture can only be called by a two thirds vote of those present. There is a less complex Party-control structure in the Senate; the stand of influential senators may be more important than the party’s position (if any).
The constitutional rules on membership qualifications of the Senate specify a minimum age of 30, United States citizenship for nine years and residence in the country from where they are elected.
Albany, City, New York State Capital (1797) and Albany County Headquarters (1683). It is situated along the Hudson River, 230 kilometres north of New York City.
In 1609, Henry Hudson the English explorer anchored the Half Moon in the shallows near the site, while looking for the Passage to the northwest. Fort Nassau, erected in 1614, was a trade post for the New Netherlands Company on Castle Island (today part of the port of Albany). The Fort Orange in 1624 was built by a collection of Walloon families and the first permanent colony, known as Beverwyck, began. In 1629, the Dutch West India Company granted Kiliaen van Rensselaer, the Amsterdam trader, lands along both sides of the river (including Beverwyck). The village of Beverwyck was renamed Rensselaerswyck and in 1652 the colonial governor Peter Stuyvesant of the Dutch Western India Company secured independence from the Rensselaer family for the Beverwyck village. The settlement was renamed when Fort Orange came to the British on 24 September 1664, to honour James, Duke of York and Albany (later King James II).
On 22 July 1686, British Governor Thomas Dongan gave a city charter. The strategic position of Albany and the building of Fort Frederick made it a premier colonial town. Its population in 1703 rose to 3,498 in 1790 (the first census year in the United States) and to 50,763 in 1850. The Netherlands ancestry can be seen in numerous street names and the annual Tulip Festival in the Washington Park, held in May.
(1)Full Name: Kirsten Gillibrand
(2)Nickname: Kirsten Gillibrand
(3)Born: 9 December 1966
(4)Father: Douglas Paul Rutnik
(5)Mother: Polly Edwin Rutnik
(6)Sister: Not Available
(7)Brother: Not Available
(8)Marital Status: Married
(9)Profession: Politician and Lawyer
(10)Birth Sign: Sagittarius
(12)Religion: Not Available
(13)Height: Not Available
(14)School: Not Available
(15)Highest Qualifications: Not Available
(16)Hobbies: Not Available
(17)Address: Albany, New York, U.S
(18)Contact Number: (202) 224-4451
(19)Email ID: Not Available
(23)Youtube Channel: https://www.youtube.com/user/KirstenEGillibrand